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Allopurinol is a medication that is used to treat gout. Its use can rarely be associated with a hypersensitivity syndrome that can be potentially fatal. A retrospective case–control study of patients who had this reaction showed that lowering the starting dose adjusted for kidney function (at a dose of 1.5 mg per unit of estimated GFR) can lower the risk of this severe reaction. Arthritis and Rheumatism